is a globally spread elder variety that was selected from wild forms by the federal college and research institute Klosterneuburg (Bundeslehr- und Versuchsanstalt). Due to its high colourant content (Cyanidin-3-O-sambubiosid) it is also of interest for the food industry. Developed by Strauß and Novak, the method of cultivation of a meter-high stem and the thereto related simple cultivability have made the growing of elderberries the second most important species of fruit trees in terms of surface area after the apple. Haschberg produces very big hanging umbels, that ripen successively; Also the cymes blossoming at the beginning of June are often used for the production of elder juice or the further processing in the kitchen.
ROWANBERRY - MOUNTAIN ASH
In the liquor production and the manufacturing industry – always appreciated by experts – rediscovered by lovers!
The fruits contain a significant amount of the sugar alcohol sorbitol, which, besides the sugar level (10-12%), also adds to the typical taste of the tangy-aromatic berry and plays a positive role for diabetics. Moreover, the fruit is valued by the processing due to its high vitamin C and pectin content. Also the steady, yellow colorant is in demand by the food industry, since chemicals colorants are forbidden. The rowanberry appreciates deep soil and cool and harsh climatic conditions. Especially in border location it represents an unrivalled fruit with high, regular yields and low maintenance.
KLOSTERNEUBURG KLON IV (clone IV)
is one of Ing. Eder’s selections of the “Sweet Moravian Rowanberry”, that is especially rich in constituents and low in bitter seed content.
is a Russian hybrid of “Sorbus auccuparia” x “Aronia melanocarpa”, very sweet, slightly tart, but without tannic acids – for all the lovers of rowanberries especially eligible for the fresh consumption.
SERVICE TREE/ SORB TREE - (Sorbus domestica)
Since the Sorbus Domestica, one of the most precious and rarest tree species at the same time, is threatened by extinction it was chosen as tree of the year in 1993. By now, it gives many nature lovers and distillers joy again. The harvest starts in September/ October, when the first pear- or apple-shaped, 2 to 4 cm big fruits fall down. As long as they are hard, they are inedible. They taste extremely sour and astringent. As soon as the pulp gets soft, a mild, sweet and sour flavour is developed. In areas where the climate is too harsh, the high tannin content and the bitterly-tart flavour dominate. Ripe fruits serve for the enhancement of fruit wine by adding the juice of the Sorbus Domestica to the apple or pear juice. Because of its high tannin content, the juice of the Sorbus Domestica seems to be fermentation directing and can enhance the protein precipitation. Clarity, preservability and aroma of fruit juices are improved by adding the juice of the Sorbus Domestica. The fruits of the Sorbus Domestica have become valuable remedy for digestive disorders (diarrhoea) and stomach problems due to the high content of tannin and pectin. In France, a liquor of the sorb tree has become internationally known under the name of “Sorbette”. Moreover, the fruit service tree is also processed into fruit wine, must, vinegar and jelly.
SERVICE BERRY - (Sorbus torminalis)
The Sorbus Torminalis prefers nutrient-rich, deep, calcareous soil with good aeration but avoids shady, moist locations. Its elongated, ovate 8 to 15 mm big fruits ripen in September/ October. Initially the hard fruits, up to 10 adhering at one infructescence, change its colour into reddish-yellow and turn brown when fully ripe. Being rich in tannin they seem to be too astringent to be consumed freshly. Only frost or allowing them to chill at an airy location makes them usable. They do not taste juicy but sandy-floury and sourly-sweet. The brandy, compote, jelly and jam made out of the Sorbus Torminalis comes with a taste that reminds at marzipan.
CHOKEBERRY - The black apple berry (Aronia melanocarpa)
It is also called black mountain ash or apple berry and counts, next to other species like sea buckthorn or cornelian cherry, to the medicinal plants due to its medically valuable ingredients. Its cultivation is considered to be an innovative and promising specialisation within the orcharding. The demands concerning soil and climate are rather low for the chokeberry. Its stable and dark pigment as well as its special flavour make it interesting for the industrial processing. The following varieties are currently tested and multiplied on our site:
MEDLAR (Mespilus germanica)
When being harvested at the beginning of November, the 2 to 7 cm big (depending on the variety), brown, conical and hairy fruits are usually rock-hard and, due to its bitterness, completely inedible. Only after frost or after the post-maturing in a thin layer of straw or a a layer of peaches they become ripe to eat. After softening the pulp, the taste turns into being pleasantly sour – aromatic. Lovers value the raw fruit because of its unique flavour. In the Czech Republic and Italy Medlar is regarded as cash-crop. Medlar is rich in invert sugar, acidity and pectic substances. When being steamed with wine, butter, and sugar, roasted over an open fire or made into puree, compote or jam it is often praised by the connoisseur. In Styria the fruit is still used for the production of jam or added to tea (as taste improvement).
CORNELIAN CHERRY (Cornus mas)
This cherry-like wild fruit has been used in the folk medicine for a long time, has always been valued by connoisseurs and is processed to products like juice, jelly, jam, liquor, brandy or fruit bars. The undemanding and hard wood prefers calcareous clay soil and can be described as frost-hard and drought-resistant. The following varieties are currently tested and multiplied on our site:
The chestnut was already described with a wide range of healing powers by Hildegard von Bingen and was formerly called “bread of the poor”. Today they are rather a delicacy than a staple and one cannot think about Christmas markets without the smell of hot chestnuts.
Prerequisite for good thriving and complete maturation is a summer-warm and a winter-mild climate, soils poor in lime in areas without accumulation of cold air.
is very large fruited, ripes moderately early with good taste and good peelability. Since Marietta’s male pollen is not very fertile, it is not only non-self-pollinating but also not a good pollinator. Marietta is resistant against the chestnut gall wasp and little sensitive for the chestnut blight.
is very large fruited, ripens late, has good taste and good peelability. Martina is resistant against the chestnut gall wasp, frost-resistant and an ideal pollinator for Marietta, Margin and Marlene.
is large fruited, ripens late, has a very good taste and good peelability. It carries high-yields and often already bears fruit in the year of planting. Marlene is very robust, limitedly self-pollinating and a good pollinator for Marietta, Margit and Martina.
SCHWARZE MAULBEERE/ Black mulberry (MORUS NIGRA)
Warmth and light are prerequisites for a good thriving and therefore it loves the winegrowing climate. But sheltered in a niche of mild alpine valleys it can also grow quite high. The black mulberry fancies fertile grounds and loose soil with good nutrient supply while impeded drainage is avoided. Amongst the old Greeks it was considered as symbol of wisdom, since it only sprouts as soon as there is no more threat of frost. Black coloration and the dropping of healthy fruits are signals for ripe berries. Besides eating the matured fruit freshly it can also be used for refreshing juices and were formerly used as common household remedy against a sore throat.
WEISSE MAULBEERE/ White mulberry (MORUS ALBA)
The white mulberry is more widely spread than the black one, but not because of its fruit quality but because of its leaves which have always been used for the silkworm breeding and as animal feed.
The emergence of synthetic fibres on the textile markets have taken away the big economic importance of the silkworm breeding- and therefore, also of the plantation of the white mulberry. The colour is in general milk-white, but also yellowish, reddish or darker varieties of the white mulberry exist. It is only frost-resistant enough for winegrowing regions and prefers lighter, sandy soils.
WALNUTS (Juglans regia)
For economic reasons, the commercial walnut cultivation has not been profitable in our climate for decades, even though it has strong tradition for the home production in the Weinviertel and many other regions. In the past, you could find cherry and nut trees for self-supply in almost every vineyard- a tradition, that fell victim to the mechanisation.
Especially these circumstances trigger many nature-conscious people to plant nut trees again- in fallow or as courtyard tree for example. The walnut tree only sprouts late in spring, so that the mild spring sun can shine in the yard. In summer, the dense foliage provides shadow and some of the constituents contained in the leaves keep away gnats and flies.
“In every dog kennel a walnut tree should be found, because it holds off fleas and bugs”, an experienced dog breeder once told me.
Needing only little cultivation and cutting, also the fruit itself is a valid argument for this tree species.
However, planting a walnut tree, waiting for 15 years until the first fruits appear and realising only then that they are small and hard-shelled spoils all the joy for this undemanding fruit. Walnuts are very durable, the “tree for life” should therefore be precisely picked: A grafted plant, that guarantees a specific variety.
We have collected various varieties from the USA, France, Germany, Bohemia and Hungary and have multiplied the best of them. Those new varieties and good prices on the market have made the commercial cultivation lucrative again.
They are tasty and large fruited, robust against diseases, they burgeon late and already start to yield fruits after the third year. Furthermore, they are all apomictical, which means that they also bear lots of fruit even without pollination. The plantation of different varieties, however, increases and ensures the harvest.
The ´round Seifersdorfer is a classical variety from Dresden/ Pillnity, Germany, which is frost resistant due to its early woodiness. The medium-early bud break and early main growth period end make it most convenient for altitudes up to 800m and therefore also suitable for Austrian’s western states. The large, round nut can be taken out of the shell easily and tastes good.
is one of the main varieties in America because of its high yields and already bears fruit after the second year. Together with Mars it makes up for our most robust varieties against Xantomonas (bacterial leaf blight). Moderately late bud break.
Large, oblong-oval, thin-shelled nut with fantastic taste.
has its origin in the cultivation station Valtice (South Moravia), is sprouting very late and therefore especially suitable for warm regions. The tree is medium-growing with a broad, dense crown and early as well as richly bearing. The nut itself is large, oblong with grooved shell and constitutes a valuable enrichment of the assortment.
burgeons even later than Jupiter and is from Moravia as well. The tree grows slowly, forms the smallest crown diameter of all nut varieties in our assortment and only drops its leaves quite late. Mars is especially suitable for the winegrowing climate and is our most robust variety concerning leaf blotch diseases and bloom frost. The delicious nut is large, smooth and a little pointed.
yields very large, round to oval nuts with a light, smooth shell. The pit is light – straw yellow, easily to remove, tasty and fills out the shell completely. The tree grows medium-strong to strong and builds a high crown.
has turned out to be the most robust variety against late frost from the West German ones and is therefore preferred to “Weinsberg 1” and “Geisenheim 120”. The nut is medium large, lightshelled. The tree is growing medium-strongly and very healthy.
is very large fruited and therefore an important variety in the commercial cultivation. The tree is strong-growing and builds a massive crown. A pollinator is necessary for Geisenheim 120 and it is sensitive to walnut diseases like leaf scorch and bacterial leaf blight.
The skin of the nut’s kernel is dark red, very decoratively coloured and therefore popular for decoration with housewives and confectioners. The tree burgeons later than the Rote Donaunuss and is therefore not as vulnerable to late frost and also more robust against leaf blotch.
WUNDER VON MONREPOS
brings rather bigger nuts than the already large Geisenheim 120, a little more oblong while having the same thickness, tastes intensively nutty and has a smooth, thin shell. It can be opened easily. The trees grow very strongly, as much as Geisenheim 120 or even more. In general, a very attractive nut, which already bears fruits from the second year onwards in our regions. During the years with high precipitation (2010 and 2016) many bacterial and fungal diseases occurred. Wunder von Monrepos has proven itself to be one of the healthies varieties in the tree nursery as well as among young, fruit bearing trees.
HASELNUTS (Corylus avellana)
Because of the early bloom, the commercial cultivation of hazelnuts is rather uneconomic in our climate. Nevertheless, might be used as assortment enrichment in the private cultivation or as sight protection.
Hazelnuts usually grow shrubby and regenerates by shoots from the grass-roots level. However, it is also possible to grow them with a short trunk- either on their own root or grafted on the Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna). The ideal planting distance for planting in a row is 3-4m; if planted as sight protection, 2m are recommended. Demands concerning location and light are rather high. It requires deep soil with steadied water balance. Sheltered, late budding, high locations would be ideal; the pH-value does not have much importance.
Before starting a commercial hazelnut plantation, it should be considered whether the nuts will be industrially processed or sold in-shell. For the industrial sales channel, a round nut shape with circular cross section is important for the calibration and roasting process. The cracked nut ideally has a size of 9-11mm or 11-13mm. Moreover, a low shell-content, a kernel that is not filling out the shell completely and a smooth kernel skin which completely comes off after being roasted are desired.
When being sold in-shell, the nut should exceed a size of 2mm, preferably even 24mm, and the storage should be dry and cool, since the variety-typical taste suffers quickly and smelly external aroma are often developed. Many of our hazelnut varieties comply with both requirements (combination nut).
For a good harvest it should be aimed at a loose crown, since poorly lighted branches only blossom and bear in fruit moderately. All hazelnut varieties are non-self-pollinating, gonochoristic and monoicous, which means, that male catkins and the female stigma are separate blossoms, but on the same plant. The pollination occurs due to wind. Since the flowering period does not always match, the plantation of different varieties is beneficial.
Medium-sized, oblong-oval, almond-shaped, light-brown combination nut; downwards broad acuminate; tasty. Matures mid to end of September. Medium strong to strong and broad growth. Medium yield.
TONDA DI GIFONI
A medium - large sized, roundish nut which is often marketed directly due to its outstanding taste, but also liked to be used for industrial processing due to its good calibration and high yields. Medium growth.
WUNDER VON BOLLWEILER
Large – very large nut, broad conical, flat shield. Only 2/3 of the fruit is covered by the fruit pods. Matures mid – end of September. Grows medium – strongly, broad upright. Catkins reddish-brown in winter; valuable, fruitful variety.
Medium – large, long egg-shaped, light-brown combination nut with good taste, very long, deeply slitted, single sided incised husk. Well calibrated; Matures mid to end of September, very uniform. Grows medium strongly, wide crested; Catkins grey-green in winter; early and very high yield.
Medium sized, homogenously round, thin-skinned nut – therefore good for the industrial growing. Dark-brown skin, completely filled out by the kernel. Husk around the skin remarkably long. Taste pleasantly like almonds, sweet. Matures mid of September. Slow-growing, broad to flat-topped, red bud break; high yield.
Especially large, spherical in-shell nut variety which is rather unsuitable for the industrial growing due to its size. Due to its late maturing – end of September- the otherwise robust Corabel should not be planted in late climates.
Being related to the peach, almonds likes sunny locations. While the wood is not even too sensitive to frost, almonds bloom even before apricots. That is the reason for being desired as bee pasture and it lets some southern flair in the garden. The seedling, which is found in the mid of the kernel, is eaten; raw as well as roasted.
Demands concerning soil are little, it tolerates drought quite well but likes some kind of profundity of the ground. Most of the almond varieties are non-self-pollinating, therefore two different varieties should be planted.
- LAURANNE® Avijor
- WEISSE KRACHMANDEL