Alternative fruit species

SEA BUCKTHORN

Sea buckthorn is a wild fruit that widespread all over the world and that has become increasingly popular among consumers in recent years. Especially the high content of vitamin C and secondary plant substances are important arguments for this undemanding fruit species. It copes quite well with light soils, is heat-tolerant, frost resistant and wind resistant. Soils rich in humus are recommended for commercial cultivation. Since many types of sea buckthorn are very thorny and the harvest is often difficult, we have selected varieties with particularly few thorns ad large fruits that are easier to harvest.

Planting female and male varieties is necessary in order to achieve a fruit yield. A male plant fertilizes up to 10 female plants. The small, inconspicuous flowers do not attract insects, but are primarily pollinated by the wind. Therefore, the fertilizer should not stand too far away.

ORANGE ENERGY® HABEGO (S)

large, oblong-oval, bright yellowish-orange fruits, very stable in colour and with little hair, dense fruiting already from the middle of September until the end of September - a top variety from the breeding programme of H.-J. ALBRECHT, Berlin, which can be described as the culmination of this breeding series. Growth is strong, broadly upright with a broad lateral branching, only slightly thorny;


SIROLA(S)

Medium strong growth, taut upright, very few spines, few suckers; bred by H.-J. ALBRECHT, Berlin, from crossing of a Siberian variety with H. r. Pollmix; fruits are large (100 fruits = 52 grams), elongated oval to cylindrical, red-orange in colour, pleasantly sweet; fruit stems are relatively long and therefore easy to pick; ripe from late July to early August - recommended for private gardens due to fruit colouring, good taste and early ripening. Sirola(s) is a protected variety - unauthorized reproduction prohibited!


POLLMIX 3

Male variety for Orange Energy® and Sirola(S); grows broadly erect, medium-high, is slightly thorny; leaves dark green silvery shaggy (beschülfert); in commercial cultivation we recommend the classification of ´Pollmix 1´ and ´Pollmix 3´; marketed by H.-J. ALBRECHT, Berlin, 1986.

Goji berry

Only few fruit species polarize as much as Goji currently. On the one hand it is traded as the "wonder berry" from the Himalayas, the anti-aging sensation in Hollywood that no star can do without, on the other hand Goji has long been known to us in Austria as "devil's thread" or "boxthorn" and grows in the Weinviertel in almost every cellar alley and every ravine path. It has always been warned against eating large quantities, especially of leaves and flowers.

Of course, the new goji varieties are Chinese or Tibetan selections, which are bred with regard to content substances and other fruit-growing properties.

Due to the great demand and the interest of some fruit growers to cultivate this type of fruit here, we have included some of the best varieties in our assortment:

No.1 LIFEBERRY®

High-performance variety, selected according to taste, ingredients and yield. - Cultivated millions of times in Chinese commercial plantations, mainly in the region ´Ningxia´. Variety protected by trademark law!


BIG LIFEBERRY®

Like the species, but stronger growth with larger leaves and fruits - a Chinese selection. Variety protected by trademark law!


SWEET LIFEBERRY®

Like the species; compact, finer shoots; smaller leaves; large number of sweet fruits - a Chinese selection for commercial cultivation. Variety protected by trademark law!

MAGNOLIA-VINE (Schisandra chinensis)

Schisandra chinensis has been one of the most important plants in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Despite the proven extensive healing effects, the plant is a rarity in Europe, One of its names is "Wu Wei Zi", which translates as "herb of five tastes". But also terms such as "fruit of the five elements" or "five-flavour fruit" can be found for "Schisandra chinensis".

Shisandra fruits taste hot, salty, bitter, sweet and sour. The berry itself has the salty taste, the skin the sweet-sour taste and the seeds of the fruit have the bitter and sharp taste.

The climbing plant with its ovoid leaves can grow over 4 m high when supported by a climbing aid. It is hardy, very robust and easy to care for. In late spring, beautiful, fragrant white-pale pink creamy coloured blossoms appear at the base of young shoots. Originally Schisandra is dioecious, i.e. there are male and female plants. Meanwhile there are self-fertile selections. If two Chinese berries are planted, this promotes fructification.

The fruits with this interesting taste and aroma are best harvested after the first frost in October, usually dried or processed into juice or jam. Teas can be made from dried fruits, leaves and shoots.

The plants love a moist location, which can also be half-shady, but suffer from drought and heat. Like vines, they are very creative, a few wires are enough to wind up, but Schisandra is also very suitable for greening fences, pergolas or trellises.

POMEGRANATE (Punica granatum)

LARGE POMEGRANATE "GÖTTIN JUNO" ("GODDESS JUNO")

The pomegranate thrives in our climate best as a potted plant in a sunny location, on the balcony and terrace. It might also gives an exclusive Mediterranean touch to some vineyards in the midst of oleander, marguerite or agave.

It is a symbolic, mythological plant and is known in all cultures of the Old World. It is a symbol of fertility and love, and the synergy of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-oestrogenic ingredients has been shown to slow down the development of prostate and breast cancer.

For the ripening of fruits the pomegranate needs a long vegetation period (5 to 7 months). For "Götting Juno", a particularly sunny, wind-protected outdoor spot has proven to be the right choice at the end of April. On its branches will soon appear large, bell-shaped, crumpled flowers (reminiscent of crepe paper), which are fire-red in colour and are white-fringed. Its leaves are relatively small, green and elliptic in shape. The new shoots are reddish-orange in colour.

To improve the ripeness of the fruits, the plants should be placed in a winter garden from the end of September in order to harvest the ripe fruits in November / December. Pomegranates are not climacteric, i.e. the fruits do not ripen after harvesting. But they can be stored for a very long time.

From January onwards, the pots should be wintered at approx. 0 to 4°C, even light frosts (up to max. -10°C) are no problem. At degrees above 0 it should not be too moist, at temperatures minus 0°C moisture is important, so that no roots freeze to death. Whether light or dark does not matter, since the leaves are shed during hibernation.

The apple-like fruit has a diameter of up to ten centimetres, is initially green and turn orange to bright red in colour while ripening. Inside it has many walls and chambers with 300 - 400 seeds, which are surrounded by a red seed coat that can be eaten. The flesh itself is not edible.

PERSIMMON (Diospyros kaki)

Persimmon originates from China. In late autumn, the sweet, orange fruit, that resembles a large tomato on the outside, is offered in almost all Austrian supermarkets from Italian producers. Persimmons are ebony plants (Ebenaceae), the scientific name `Diospyrus kaki´ means "fruit of Zeus".

Kaki trees are generally very frugal and adaptable to different soil types, but in our climate the limited winter hardiness of the wood and the long vegetation period that persimmons need to mature are the limiting factor in cultivation. In winter, the wood can tolerate temperatures down to -15° C. Various factors such as tree age, nutritional status and rootstock have a significant influence on winter hardiness. Young trees that have been blown with nitrogen are at particular risk.

Optimum lighting and high temperatures promote tree productivity and fruit quality in particular. Although pests and diseases do exist, they are of little importance in hobby farming.

The fruit of the gods only ripens when the leaves of the tree have fallen for the most part (October - November). The furry taste, caused by the tannins, is lost during the ripening process on the one hand, and during frost on the other. Joint storage with apples significantly accelerates the ripening process and the tannin degradation of the persimmons (ethylene excretion of ripening apples).

Also the varieties are decisive for harvesting and storage conditions. Under favourable climatic conditions, non-astringent varieties (NA) can be consumed directly from the tree while still hard and they can be stored for some time in a cool place. Astringent varieties (A varieties) should either be harvested overripe and muddy or stored together with apples. Once the fruits are ripe for consumption, they are only very little storable.

When overripe, the otherwise existing slightly bitter and furry taste has disappeared and persimmons have a very interesting and multi-layered aroma, are very healthy, versatile and a great change in the winter fruit assortment.

Due to their variety properties, persimmons are divided into two large groups - non-astringent (NA) and astringent (A), which in turn are divided into two subgroups depending on their reaction to pollination:

PCA (Pollination Constant Astringent) varieties: The fruits are always astringent and have a light orange flesh, irrespective of the pollination during harvest.

PVA varieties (Pollination Variant Astringent): The fruits are always astringent during harvest, but show a darker discoloration around the seeds during cross-pollination.

PCNA varieties (Pollination Constant Non Astringent): Under suitable climatic conditions, the fruits lose their astringency until harvest, independent of cross-pollination.

PVNA varieties (Pollination Variant Non Astringent): Without cross-pollination the parthenocarp formed fruits are soft and astringent during harvest. However, if the blossoms are pollinated by foreign pollen, the resulting fruits have the same properties as those of the PCNA varieties.

Tipo (PVNA)

is a main variety in Italy mainly because of its high yield, taste and its very large (up to 260 g) and tender fruits. It is considered `THE PERSIMMON´. The fruits are rather flat, very sweet and of the best taste. The tree forms dense, compact crowns and begins to bear very early. Tipo is self-fertile and is usually planted without fertilizer in Italy because it is too rich, the fruit size suffers and the fruits form more seeds. Under Austrian climatic conditions, cross-pollination can be recommended, as it does not ripen here until the end of October and the fruits produce less tannin from the very beginning.


Vainiglia (PVNA)

the particularly sweet, juicy fruit flesh - scented with a hint of bourbon vanilla - gives this name. Vainiglia is the earliest persimmon that will ripen here from mid-October. Medium-sized, tall, sweet fruits (140 g) and regular yield make them interesting also in our latitudes for admirers. The tree grows vigorously. Tipo and Cioccolatino are very good fertilizers for Vainiglia.


Cioccolatino (PVNA)

has its name from the dark coloured veins that run through the flesh of the fruit and also give it a darker colour from the outside. The fruits are rather small (d 90 g), round, edible even before fully ripe, particularly sweet and very crunchy. Cioccolatino ripens between Vainiglia and Tipo and is particularly interesting for the home garden and as a robust fertilizer for Tipo and Vainiglia.


Rosseyanka (D.Kaki x Diospyros Virginiana)

This variety combines the winter hardiness of D. Virginiana and the size of the fruits of Diospyros Kaki. However, the fruits are smaller and contain more tannins than commercially grown varieties. The mother tree of our scions is eight years old and has already survived winter with -18°C without any frost damage. It produces very high yields annually with up to 300 fruits with 50-70g fruit weight.


Hana Fujo (PCNA)

is the main variety in Japan, Florida and China that needs more heat than Tipo or Vainiglia, but protected particularly high in yield, very large (d 220 g), flat, one of the best in taste (although not quite as sweet as Tipo) and never astringent, seedless. The tree is early bearing, self-fertile (cross-fertilization promotes yield security) and should be protected from frost at a young age.


Rojo Brilliante (PVNA)

Besides the good taste, the particularly high yield of Rojo Brilliante makes it a main variety in Spain. The fruits are large (d 180 g), tall, firm fleshed and therefore easy to store; not as sweet as Tipo but also very aromatic. The tree begins to bear very early and is self-fertile. These persimmons are not astringent and are eaten like an apple. Rojo Brilliante ripens 2 to 3 weeks later than Tipo and needs a lot of heat. Even in Italy the quality is not as good as in southern Spain.

ROWANBERRY – MOUNTAIN ASH

In the liquor production and the manufacturing industry – always appreciated by experts – rediscovered by lovers!

The fruits contain a significant amount of the sugar alcohol sorbitol, which, besides the sugar level (10-12%), also adds to the typical taste of the tangy-aromatic berry and plays a positive role for diabetics. Moreover, the fruit is valued by the processing due to its high vitamin C and pectin content. Also the steady, yellow colorant is in demand by the food industry, since chemicals colorants are forbidden. The rowanberry appreciates deep soil and cool and harsh climatic conditions. Especially in border location it represents an unrivalled fruit with high, regular yields and low maintenance.

KLOSTERNEUBURG KLON IV

Is one of Ing. Eder’s selections of the “Sweet Moravian Rowanberry”, that is especially rich in constituents and low in bitter seed content.


TITAN

Is a Russian hybrid of “Sorbus auccuparia” x “Aronia melanocarpa”, very sweet, slightly tart, but without tannic acids – for all the lovers of rowanberries especially eligible for the fresh consumption.

BLACK ELDER (Sambucus Nigra)

HASCHBERG

is a globally spread elder variety that was selected from wild forms by the federal college and research institute Klosterneuburg (Bundeslehr- und Versuchsanstalt). Due to its high colourant content (Cyanidin-3-O-sambubiosid) it is also of interest for the food industry. Developed by Strauß and Novak, the method of cultivation of a meter-high stem and the thereto related simple cultivability have made the growing of elderberries the second most important species of fruit trees in terms of surface area after the apple. Haschberg produces very big hanging umbels, that ripen successively; Also the cymes blossoming at the beginning of June are often used for the production of elder juice or the further processing in the kitchen.

ALMONDS (Prunus dulcis)

Being related to the peach, almonds likes sunny locations. While the wood is not even too sensitive to frost, almonds bloom even before apricots. That is the reason for being desired as bee pasture and it lets some southern flair in the garden. The seedling, which is found in the mid of the kernel, is eaten; raw as well as roasted.

Demands concerning soil are little, it tolerates drought quite well but likes some kind of profundity of the ground. Most of the almond varieties are non-self-pollinating, therefore two different varieties should be planted. • DAVIDSMANDEL • KEILMANDEL  • LAURANNE® Avijor  • FERRAGNES • WEISSE KRACHMANDEL

MEDLAR (Mespilus germanica)

When being harvested at the beginning of November, the 2 to 7 cm big (depending on the variety), brown, conical and hairy fruits are usually rock-hard and, due to its bitterness, completely inedible. Only after frost or after the post-maturing in a thin layer of straw or a a layer of peaches they become ripe to eat. After softening the pulp, the taste turns into being pleasantly sour – aromatic. Lovers value the raw fruit because of its unique flavour. In the Czech Republic and Italy Medlar is regarded as cash-crop. Medlar is rich in invert sugar, acidity and pectic substances. When being steamed with wine, butter, and sugar, roasted over an open fire or made into puree, compote or jam it is often praised by the connoisseur. In Styria the fruit is still used for the production of jam or added to tea (as taste improvement).

CORNELIA CHERRY

This cherry-like wild fruit has been used in the folk medicine for a long time, has always been valued by connoisseurs and is processed to products like juice, jelly, jam, liquor, brandy or fruit bars. The undemanding and hard wood prefers calcareous clay soil and can be described as frost-hard and drought-resistant. The following varieties are currently tested and multiplied on our site: • JOLICO • KASANLAKER • SCHUHMENER • FRUITFUL

SERVICE TREE/ SORB TREE (Sorbus domestica)

Since the Sorbus Domestica, one of the most precious and rarest tree species at the same time, is threatened by extinction it was chosen as tree of the year in 1993. By now, it gives many nature lovers and distillers joy again. The harvest starts in September/ October, when the first pear- or apple-shaped, 2 to 4 cm big fruits fall down. As long as they are hard, they are inedible. They taste extremely sour and astringent. As soon as the pulp gets soft, a mild, sweet and sour flavour is developed. In areas where the climate is too harsh, the high tannin content and the bitterly-tart flavour dominate. Ripe fruits serve for the enhancement of fruit wine by adding the juice of the Sorbus Domestica to the apple or pear juice. Because of its high tannin content, the juice of the Sorbus Domestica seems to be fermentation directing and can enhance the protein precipitation. Clarity, preservability and aroma of fruit juices are improved by adding the juice of the Sorbus Domestica. The fruits of the Sorbus Domestica have become valuable remedy for digestive disorders (diarrhoea) and stomach problems due to the high content of tannin and pectin. In France, a liquor of the sorb tree has become internationally known under the name of “Sorbette”. Moreover, the fruit service tree is also processed into fruit wine, must, vinegar and jelly.

SERVICE BERRY - (Sorbus torminalis)

The Sorbus Torminalis prefers nutrient-rich, deep, calcareous soil with good aeration but avoids shady, moist locations. Its elongated, ovate 8 to 15 mm big fruits ripen in September/ October. Initially the hard fruits, up to 10 adhering at one infructescence, change its colour into reddish-yellow and turn brown when fully ripe. Being rich in tannin they seem to be too astringent to be consumed freshly. Only frost or allowing them to chill at an airy location makes them usable. They do not taste juicy but sandy-floury and sourly-sweet. The brandy, compote, jelly and jam made out of the Sorbus Torminalis comes with a taste that reminds at marzipan.

CHOKEBERRY – THE BLACK APPLE BERRY (Aronia melanocarpa)

It is also called black mountain ash or apple berry and counts, next to other species like sea buckthorn or cornelian cherry, to the medicinal plants due to its medically valuable ingredients. Its cultivation is considered to be an innovative and promising specialisation within the orcharding. The demands concerning soil and climate are rather low for the chokeberry. Its stable and dark pigment as well as its special flavour make it interesting for the industrial processing. The following varieties are currently tested and multiplied on our site: • NERO • ARON • VIKING

CHESTNUT

The chestnut was already described with a wide range of healing powers by Hildegard von Bingen and was formerly called “bread of the poor”. Today they are rather a delicacy than a staple and one cannot think about Christmas markets without the smell of hot chestnuts. Prerequisite for good thriving and complete maturation is a summer-warm and a winter-mild climate, soils poor in lime in areas without accumulation of cold air.

MARIETTA

The chestnut was already described with a wide range of healing powers by Hildegard von Bingen and was formerly called “bread of the poor”. Today they are rather a delicacy than a staple and one cannot think about Christmas markets without the smell of hot chestnuts. Prerequisite for good thriving and complete maturation is a summer-warm and a winter-mild climate, soils poor in lime in areas without accumulation of cold air.


MARGIT

Is very large fruited, moderately early ripe with good taste and good peelability. Also Margit is very robust and while it is only an average pollinator for Marietta, it works well for Martina or Marlene.


MARTINA

Is very large fruited, ripens late, has good taste and good peelability. Martina is resistant against the chestnut gall wasp, frost-resistant and an ideal pollinator for Marietta, Margin and Marlene.


MARLENE

Is large fruited, ripens late, has a very good taste and good peelability. It carries high-yields and often already bears fruit in the year of planting. Marlene is very robust, limitedly self-pollinating and a good pollinator for Marietta, Margit and Martina.

KIWI

There are two types of kiwis: the large-fruity, hardy varieties as we know them from the food trade = Actinidia chinensis; and the small-fruity, absolutely hardy Actinidia arguta varieties.

Actinidia chinensis

HAYWARD

Hayward is the classic, very large-fruity, cylindrical kiwi as known from the grocery trade. It needs protected locations, e.g. on a house wall with a climbing scaffold and necessarily a male pollinator.


SORELI® Golden Kiwi

is comparable to Hayward in quality and requirements, but does not have green, but golden yellow flesh.


MATUA und TOMURI

are male ´actinidia chinensis´ varieties, which are also available for all ´arguta´ varieties as pollinator. You can plant up to five - also different - female kiwis per male pollinator.

Actinidia arguta

ISSAJ

Issaj brings 2.5 to 3 cm large, smooth-skinned fruits with an intense kiwi flavour which can be eaten with the skin. Issaj is very resistant to winter frost and it is self-fertile. A male pollinator leads to higher yields and larger fruits.

BLACK MULBERRY (Morus nigra)

Warmth and light are prerequisites for a good thriving and therefore it loves the winegrowing climate. But sheltered in a niche of mild alpine valleys it can also grow quite high.

The black mulberry fancies fertile grounds and loose soil with good nutrient supply while impeded drainage is avoided. Amongst the old Greeks it was considered as symbol of wisdom, since it only sprouts as soon as there is no more threat of frost.

Black coloration and the dropping of healthy fruits are signals for ripe berries. Besides eating the matured fruit freshly it can also be used for refreshing juices and were formerly used as common household remedy against a sore throat.

WEISSE MAULBEERE (Morus alba)

The white mulberry is more widely spread than the black one, but not because of its fruit quality but because of its leaves which have always been used for the silkworm breeding and as animal feed.

The emergence of synthetic fibres on the textile markets have taken away the big economic importance of the silkworm breeding- and therefore, also of the plantation of the white mulberry.

The colour is in general milk-white, but also yellowish, reddish or darker varieties of the white mulberry exist. It is only frost-resistant enough for winegrowing regions and prefers lighter, sandy soils.

PAWPAW (Asimina triloba)

Paw Paw is a new, interesting type of fruit for direct marketers and home gardens in the wine-growing climate. Due to its weak growth, this hardy and robust deciduous tree can be grown very easily similar to a stone fruit spindle. The bell-shaped purple-violet-coloured flowers and the yellow-coloured foliage in autumn have a high decorative value. The edible, oblong-oval to club-shaped fruits, which are yellow-green in colour and have an exotic fruity taste - fruitier than conventional bananas - ripen here from the end of September to mid-October.

SUNFLOWER, OVERLEESEand PRIMA currently stand out from the range of Paw Paws.

WALNUTS (Juglans regia)

For economic reasons, the commercial walnut cultivation has not been profitable in our climate for decades, even though it has strong tradition for the home production in the Weinviertel and many other regions. In the past, you could find cherry and nut trees for self-supply in almost every vineyard- a tradition, that fell victim to the mechanisation.

Especially these circumstances trigger many nature-conscious people to plant nut trees again- in fallow or as courtyard tree for example. The walnut tree only sprouts late in spring, so that the mild spring sun can shine in the yard. In summer, the dense foliage provides shadow and some of the constituents contained in the leaves keep away gnats and flies.

“In every dog kennel a walnut tree should be found, because it holds off fleas and bugs”, an experienced dog breeder once told me.

Needing only little cultivation and cutting, also the fruit itself is a valid argument for this tree species.

However, planting a walnut tree, waiting for 15 years until the first fruits appear and realising only then that they are small and hard-shelled spoils all the joy for this undemanding fruit. Walnuts are very durable, the “tree for life” should therefore be precisely picked: A grafted plant, that guarantees a specific variety.

We have collected various varieties from the USA, France, Germany, Bohemia and Hungary and have multiplied the best of them. Those new varieties and good prices on the market have made the commercial cultivation lucrative again.

They are tasty and large fruited, robust against diseases, they burgeon late and already start to yield fruits after the third year. Furthermore, they are all apomictical, which means that they also bear lots of fruit even without pollination. The plantation of different varieties, however, increases and ensures the harvest.

SEIFERSDORFER

The “round Seifersdorfer” is a classical variety from Dresden/ Pillnity, Germany, which is frost resistant due to its early woodiness. The medium-early bud break and early main growth period end make it most convenient for altitudes up to 800m and therefore also suitable for Austrian’s western states. The large, round nut can be taken out of the shell easily and tastes good.


LAKE

Is one of the main varieties in America because of its high yields and already bears fruit after the second year. Together with Mars it makes up for our most robust varieties against Xantomonas (bacterial leaf blight). Moderately late bud break.

Large, oblong-oval, thin-shelled nut with fantastic taste.


JUPITER

Has its origin in the cultivation station Valtice (South Moravia), is sprouting very late and therefore especially suitable for warm regions. The tree is medium-growing with a broad, dense crown and early as well as richly bearing. The nut itself is large, oblong with grooved shell and constitutes a valuable enrichment of the assortment.


MARS

Burgeons even later than Jupiter and is from Moravia as well. The tree grows slowly, forms the smallest crown diameter of all nut varieties in our assortment and only drops its leaves quite late. Mars is especially suitable for the winegrowing climate and is our most robust variety concerning leaf blotch diseases and bloom frost. The delicious nut is large, smooth and a little pointed.


APOLLO

Yields very large, round to oval nuts with a light, smooth shell. The pit is light – straw yellow, easily to remove, tasty and fills out the shell completely. The tree grows medium-strong to strong and builds a high crown.


GEISENHEIM 139

Has turned out to be the most robust variety against late frost from the West German ones and is therefore preferred to “Weinsberg 1” and “Geisenheim 120”. The nut is medium large, lightshelled. The tree is growing medium-strongly and very healthy.


GEISENHEIM 120

Is very large fruited and therefore an important variety in the commercial cultivation. The tree is strong-growing and builds a massive crown. A pollinator is necessary for Geisenheim 120 and it is sensitive to walnut diseases like leaf scorch and bacterial leaf blight.


ROTKERNIGE

The skin of the nut’s kernel is dark red, very decoratively coloured and therefore popular for decoration with housewives and confectioners. The tree burgeons later than the Rote Donaunuss and is therefore not as vulnerable to late frost and also more robust against leaf blotch.


WUNDER VON MONREPOS

Brings rather bigger nuts than the already large Geisenheim 120, a little more oblong while having the same thickness, tastes intensively nutty and has a smooth, thin shell. It can be opened easily. The trees grow very strongly, as much as Geisenheim 120 or even more. In general, a very attractive nut, which already bears fruits from the second year onwards in our regions. During the years with high precipitation (2010 and 2016) many bacterial and fungal diseases occurred. Wunder von Monrepos has proven itself to be one of the healthies varieties in the tree nursery as well as among young, fruit bearing trees.

HAZELNUTS (Corylus avellana)

Because of the early bloom, the commercial cultivation of hazelnuts is rather uneconomic in our climate. Nevertheless, might be used as assortment enrichment in the private cultivation or as sight protection.

Hazelnuts usually grow shrubby and regenerates by shoots from the grass-roots level. However, it is also possible to grow them with a short trunk- either on their own root or grafted on the Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna). The ideal planting distance for planting in a row is 3-4m; if planted as sight protection, 2m are recommended. Demands concerning location and light are rather high. It requires deep soil with steadied water balance. Sheltered, late budding, high locations would be ideal; the pH-value does not have much importance.

Before starting a commercial hazelnut plantation, it should be considered whether the nuts will be industrially processed or sold in-shell. For the industrial sales channel, a round nut shape with circular cross section is important for the calibration and roasting process. The cracked nut ideally has a size of 9-11mm or 11-13mm. Moreover, a low shell-content, a kernel that is not filling out the shell completely and a smooth kernel skin which completely comes off after being roasted are desired.

When being sold in-shell, the nut should exceed a size of 2mm, preferably even 24mm, and the storage should be dry and cool, since the variety-typical taste suffers quickly and smelly external aroma are often developed. Many of our hazelnut varieties comply with both requirements (combination nut).

For a good harvest it should be aimed at a loose crown, since poorly lighted branches only blossom and bear in fruit moderately. All hazelnut varieties are non-self-pollinating, gonochoristic and monoicous, which means, that male catkins and the female stigma are separate blossoms, but on the same plant. The pollination occurs due to wind. Since the flowering period does not always match, the plantation of different varieties is beneficial.


COSFORD

Medium-sized, oblong-oval, almond-shaped, light-brown combination nut; downwards broad acuminate; tasty. Matures mid to end of September. Medium strong to strong and broad growth. Medium yield.


Tonda di Giffoni

A medium - large sized, roundish nut which is often marketed directly due to its outstanding taste, but also liked to be used for industrial processing due to its good calibration and high yields. Medium growth.


WUNDER VON BOLLWEILER

Large – very large nut, broad conical, flat shield. Only 2/3 of the fruit is covered by the fruit pods. Matures mid – end of September. Grows medium – strongly, broad upright. Catkins reddish-brown in winter; valuable, fruitful variety.


WEBBS PREISNUSS

Medium – large, long egg-shaped, light-brown combination nut with good taste, very long, deeply slitted, single sided incised husk. Well calibrated; Matures mid to end of September, very uniform. Grows medium strongly, wide crested; Catkins grey-green in winter; early and very high yield.


ROTBLÄTTRIGE ZELLERNUSS

Medium sized, homogenously round, thin-skinned nut – therefore good for the industrial growing. Dark-brown skin, completely filled out by the kernel. Husk around the skin remarkably long. Taste pleasantly like almonds, sweet. Matures mid of September. Slow-growing, broad to flat-topped, red bud break; high yield.


Corabel

Especially large, spherical in-shell nut variety which is rather unsuitable for the industrial growing due to its size. Due to its late maturing – end of September- the otherwise robust Corabel should not be planted in late climates.

FIGS (Ficus carica)

Basically figs need warmth, but they can also be cultivated outdoors in our climate. We have two so-called "hardy" and resistant varieties on offer. Nevertheless, we recommend that they are planted in a pot for the first two to four years, protected during the winter and only planted outdoors in spring. Once they spent a year outdoors, exposed to wind and weather, they also withstand temperatures below -15°C, especially if these cold periods do not last too long. A protected site or antifreeze protection with fleece, brushwood, straw, reed,... is always recommended.

Figs need some care: On the one hand they love warmth, but in the heat they consume a lot of water through their large leaves. However, they also react sensitively to too much water and accumulating moisture - especially in the pot. Figs need a good nutrient supply. With an excessive supply of nitrogen, however, winter frost resistance decreases rapidly.


BAUERNFEIGE ("Farmer´s fig”)

The Bauernfeige is a green, self-fertile, traditional, high-yielding and hardy fig variety with a particularly good taste.


FIROMA®

Firoma produces numerous, large, tasty, reddish brown - violet fruits with a very long harvest period. They ripen in favoured locations as early as August. Often many fruits can already be harvested on biennial plants. Firoma is self-fertile and very robust.